Chronic pain and anxiety are just a few symptoms of breathing dysfunction. There is a broad spectrum of disease states and physiological changes that can manifest themselves as pain, emotional distress, and poor performance in your career or athletics from improper breathing habits. These habits are learned and over time can cause debilitating physiological changes that create havoc to your natural homeostasis. Discover and implement good respiration and breathing habits to support your physiology, your consciousness, and your life.

There are a long list of benefits from correct and focused breathing patterns that can be learned and applied to a variety of activities.

These physiological and emotional states can be transformed in seconds by people who have learned how to monitor and control their carbon dioxide levels through Capnography.

  • Are YOU Over-Breathing?
  • Is it triggering symptoms and deficits?
  • Is your breathing making you sick?
  • How is it affecting your consciousness?
  • Is it causing breathing struggle episodes?
  • Is it triggering attention & learning deficits?
  • Is it triggering anxiety, anger, or panic?
  • Is it exacerbating stress, fatigue, and pain?
  • Is it triggering headache, hypertension, asthma?
  • Is it perpetuating unexplained symptoms?
  • Is it compromising athletic or performance ability?


Hypocapnia (CO2 deficit) as a consequence of over-breathing is commonplace. It is estimated that 10 to 25 percent of the U.S. population may be suffering some of the effects of over-breathing! The effects of behaviorally altering acid-base physiology, as described at other site pages of this website, can be profound and dramatic, effects well recognized in clinical physiology. Hypocapnia may cause, trigger, exacerbate, and/or perpetuate profound short-term and long-term physical and mental changes, some of which are summarized below:

  • COGNITIVE DEFICITS: attention, learning, thinking, problem solving, memory
  • PSYCHOMOTOR DISTURBANCES: coordination, reaction time, integration
  • EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY: anger, anxiety, low mood, frustration tolerance
  • PERFORMANCE ANXIETY: public speaking, test taking, music recitals
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL SYNDROMES: phobias, panic attack, anxiety syndromes, depression
  • PERSONALITY CHANGES: self-esteem, confidence, cognitive style, emotional posture
  • DEFENSIVENESS: denial, self-talk, dissociation, disconnectedness
  • STRESS SYMPTOMS: fatigue, generalized anxiety, burnout, and physical symptoms
  • CARDIOVASCULAR DISTURBANCES: angina, heart attack, arrhythmias, nonspecific pain, ECG abnormalities
  • VASCULAR SYMPTOMS: hypertension, migraine phenomena, digital artery spasm, ischemia
  • RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS: bronchial constriction and spasm, airway resistance, asthma symptoms and attack
  • GASTRIC SYMPTOMS: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), nausea, cramping, bloatedness, non-ulcer dyspepsia
  • PREGNANCY: fetal health, premature birth, symptoms during pregnancy
  • MUSCLE COMPROMISE: spasm, hyperreflexia, pain, tetany, weakness, fatigue, and stiffness
  • NEUROMUSCULAR DYSFUNCTIONS: repetitive strain injury (RSI), pain, injury, fibromyalgia
  • BLOOD IRREGULARITIES: red blood cell rigidity (effects of calcium), thrombosis (blood clotting)
  • PHYSICAL DEFICITS: physical endurance, altitude sickness, acute fatigue, chronic fatigue, effort syndrome
  • SLEEP DISTURBANCES: apnea and other disturbances

About Capnography

Capnography is the monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the respiratory gases. The educational capnograph monitors exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2), more specifically end tidal partial pressure carbon dioxide (ETCO2) from the exhale.

The educational capnometer has been specifically designed and manufactured for evaluating, observing, and teaching about functional breathing behavior. It is not intended for diagnosis and treatment. The instrument is for learning about breathing habits that can interfere with good oxygen allocation. The carbon dioxide in the breath is vital for regulating good acid base balance, electrolytes balance, oxygen allocation, blood flow and kidney function. We all breathe, and we all breathe differently based on our own personal learning experiences. The educational capnograph allows us to know when CO2 levels are in the normal ranges and when they are not.

The educational capnometer we use in our office is a combination hardware-software system that provides for real-time computer displays of partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2) while breathing, both during the inhale and the exhale. During the inhale the instrument reads effectively “zero,” as there is only a very small amount of CO2 in atmospheric air, about 0.3 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) as compared to a total atmospheric pressure of 760 mmHg (at sea level). During the exhale it rises sharply to the average level of PCO2 in the alveoli (basic gas exchange units) of the lungs, rising very slowly during the transition from exhale to inhale (alveolar plateau), and eventually reaching a peak value immediately prior to the next inhale. This peak value of PCO2 can be thought of as the “End of the Tide” of air, or ETCO2. This waveform is a capnogram.

Generally, PaCO2 levels below 35 mmHg constitute hypocapnia (CO2 deficit): 30-35 mmHg is mild to moderate, 25-30 mmHg is serious, and 20-25 mmHg is severe hypocapnia. These instruments are used worldwide in emergency medicine, in critical care, and during surgery for gas monitoring and regulation purposes; these are medical applications. The educational capnometer we use provides for educational applications, it is specifically designed and manufactured for evaluating, observing, and self-regulating over breathing behavior.